The Book of Continuing Creation:
Finding Life’s Meaning and Purpose – In Nature, Reason, and Science
(Earth-centered spirituality, without myths or miracle stories)

The Book’s Essays will be posted month-by-month, as they are written.  Each Essay stands alone, independent of the others; but you will want to read the Introduction and How to Read This Book first (they are both very short), and then read the Overview.  The 27-page Overview presents all the major concepts in the Book of Continuing Creation.  A list of all the posted Essays appears in the right-hand column.  

(This website also contains all of J.X. Mason’s weekly Author’s Blog Posts.  If you wish, you can subscribe to the Blog Posts and receive them in your email.  Everything is free and without advertising.)


Table of Contents

Table of Contents For The Book of Continuing Creation Notes:     > The Book of Continuing Creation is opposed to biblical, fundamentalist, “creationism.”   > Our Essays can be thought of as Chapters in our Book.   > Most of our Essays can be read independently of each other. Part One: Intros and Guides   Essay […]

Continue Reading Table of Contents

Energy Flows, Membranes, Carbon-based

Energy Flows, Membranes, Carbon-based      This is the first of Three Essays on “Abiogenesis” — the Evolution of First Life   Introduction Most biologists agree that all organisms living today evolved from a single primitive one-celled lifeform. 104 The consensus holds that this “First Life” emerged by natural geo-chemical processes about 3,900 million (3.9 billion) […]

Continue Reading Energy Flows, Membranes, Carbon-based

Medieval Catholicism to Protestant Reformation

Medieval Catholicism to Protestant Reformation Note:  Our “Timeline of Christianity,” lists the dates of key events across the 2,200 years since Jesus’ Crucifixion. You can find it in APPENDIX A at the end of this Essay. This is our third Essay on Christianity. The first was Evaluating Jesus’ Teaching, and the second Essay was Early Christianity: From Jesus’ Death […]

Continue Reading Medieval Catholicism to Protestant Reformation

  1. Kate Bowler, Blessed: A History of the American Prosperity Gospel, 2013, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199827695. Pp. 11 and 31-32.
  2. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis: How Life Came from Inanimate Matter,” a video film, 9-6-2019,
  3. Wikipedia article on “Panspermia,” particularly footnotes 163 through 169.
  4. Wikipedia article on “Panspermia,” particularly footnotes 171 through 173.
  5. Jurassic Park, motion picture, 1993, Amblin Entertainment, Universal Studios; Dr. Malcolm was played by Jeff Goldblum; after the 1990 novel of the same name by Dr. Michael Crichton.
  8. Martha Henriques, “The Idea that Life Began as Clay Crystals Is 50 Years Old” 8-24-2016, BBC.
  9. W. Martin and M. Russell, “On the Origins of Cells: A Hypothesis for the Evolutionary Transitions from Abiotic Geochemistry to Chemoautotrophic Prokaryotes, and "From Prokaryotes to Nucleated Cells,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, published online at doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1183 (2002).
  10. John Whitfield, “New Theory for Origin of Life: Mineral Cells Might Have Incubated First Living Things,” Nature, 12-4-2002, doi:10.1038/news021202-2. See also, N. Roldane, N. Hollinsworth, et al., “Bio-inspired CO2 Conversion by Iron Sulfide Catalysts Under Sustainable Conditions,” Royal Society of Chemistry, 3-24-15.
  11. D. Luo, D. Yang, S. Peng, and G.Q. Lu, “Enhanced Transcription and Translation in Clay Hydrogel and Implications for Early Life Evolution,” Scientific Reports, 11-7-2013;
  12. Paraphrased from Bill Steele’s article, “Before Cells, Biochemicals May Have Combined in Clay,” 11-7-2013, Cornell Chronicle, Cornell University.
  13. Bill Steele, Ibid.
  14. Bill Steele, Ibid.
  15. Martha Henriques, “The Idea that Life Began as Clay Crystals is 50 Years Old,” 8-24-2016, BBC.
  16. Leslie March, “Life's Crystal Code,” 3-19-2009,
  17. See also Martha Henriques, “The Idea that Life began as clay crystals in 50 years old, 8-24-2016, BBC.
  18. Leslie Mullen, “Life's Crystal Code,”
  19. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” a video film, Ibid.
  20. V. Erastova, MT Degiacomi, D. Fraser, and HC Greenwell, "Mineral Surface Chemistry Control for Origin of Prebiotic Peptides," December 2017, Nature Communications. 8 (1): 2033. Bibcode:2017NatCo...8.2033E. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02248-y. PMC 5725419. PMID 29229963.
  21. Leslie Mullen, “Life's Crystal Code,”]
  22. Martha Henriques, Ibid.
  23. Michael Schirber, “Diamonds May Be Life's Birthstone,”, 9-25-2008,
  24. Michael Schirber, Ibid.
  25. Michael Schirber, Ibid.
  26. Leslie Mullen, “Life's Crystal Code,”, 3-19-2009.]
  27. Robert Hazen, Ibid., p.138.
  28. Leslie Mullen, “Life's Crystal Code,”, 3-19-2009.
  29. D.R. Colman, S. Poudel,, The Deep, Hot Biosphere: Twenty-five Years of Retrospection,” Proceeding of the National Academy of Science, (PNAS), 7-03-2107, See also,
  30. Martin Homann, et al., "Microbial life and Biogeochemical Cycling on Land 3,220 Million Years Ago,” 7-23-2018, Nature Geoscience,11 (9): 665–671. Bibcode:2018NatGe..11..665H. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0190-9. S2CID 134935568; from the article, “Bacteria,” on Wikipedia,
  31. Jonathan Watts, “Scientists Identify Vast Underground Ecosystem Containing Billions of Micro-organisms,” The Guardian, 12-10-2018,
  32. HC Tung, NE Bramall, PB Price, 2005, "Microbial Origin of Excess Methane in Glacial Ice and Implications for Life on Mars," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (51): 18292–6. Bibcode:2005PNAS,10218292T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507601102. PMC 1308353. PMID 16339015.
  33. F. Puente-Sanchez, A. Arce-Rodrigues, et al., Viable Cyanobacteria in the Deep Continental Subsurface, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10-1-2018, From Wikipedia, “Earliest Known Life Forms.”
  34. Carl Zimmer, "What Came Before DNA,?” Discover Magazine, 6-26-04.
  35. Sean Chamberlin, "Black Smokers and Giant Worms," 1999, Fullerton College, Retrieved 2-11-2011. See also, Brent C. Christner, 2002, "Detection, Recovery, Isolation, and Characterization of Bacteria in Glacial Ice and Lake Vostok Accretion Ice,” 2002, Ohio State University.
  36. Office of Legislative Affairs, “Microbe from Depths Takes Life to Hottest Known Limit,” 8-14-2003, National Science Foundation,
  37.   A.V. 22  Sysoev, A. V.; Kantor, Yu. I. (1995). "Two new species of Phymorhynchus (Gastropoda, Conoidea, Conidae) from the hydrothermal vents" (PDF). Ruthenica. 5: 17–26. From the Wikipedia article, “Hydrothermal Vent.”
  38. "Extremes of Eel City,” Astrobiology Magazine. 28 May 2008. See also, A. V. Sysoev and Y.I. Kantor, (1995). "Two New Species of Phymorhynchus (Gastropoda, Conoidea, Conidae) From the Hydrothermal Vents,"1995, at Ruthenica. 5: 17–26. See also, S. Botos, "Life on a Hydrothermal Vent," Hydrothermal Vent Communities.
  39. Live Science Staff, “Boiling Hot Water Found in Frigid Arctic Sea,” LiveScience,
  40. Kenneth Chang, "Conditions for Life Detected on Saturn Moon Enceladus," 4-13-2017, New York Times. See also, "Spacecraft Data Suggest Saturn Moon's Ocean May Harbor Hydrothermal Activity," NASA, 3-11-2015. See also, M. Paine, "Mars Explorers to Benefit from Australian Research," 5-15-2001, Both references from Wikipedia article, “Hydrothermal Vent.”
  41. For 19 separate footnote references to Dr. Muller’s scientific papers on this topic, see the Wikipedia article on Thermosynthesis.
  42. See the Wikipedia article, "Panspermia."
  43. C. Mileikowsky, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, et al., "Natural Transfer of Microbes in Space, Part I: From Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars," 2000, Icarus, 145 (2): 391–427. Bibcode:2000Icar.145..391M.
  44. From Wikipedia article on “Panspermia.”
  45. A. Dalgarno, A. "The Galactic Cosmic Ray Ionization Rate," 2006, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (33): 12269–73. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312269D. See also, Laurie Brown, Abraham Pais, and A.B. Pippard, "The Physics of the Interstellar Medium," 1995, Twentieth Century Physics (2nd ed.), p. 1765. ISBN 978-0-7503-0310-1.
  46. Seth Shostak, "Comets and Asteroids May Be Spreading Life Across the Galaxy – "Are Germs From Outer Space the Source of Life on Earth,?" 10-26-2018, NBC News. See also, Idan Ginsburg, M. Lingham, and Abraham Loeb, "Galactic Panspermia," 11-19-2018, The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 868 (1): L12. arXiv:1810.04307v2. Bibcode:2018ApJ...868L..12G.
  47. Edward Belbruno; Amaya Moro-Martı´n,, "Chaotic Exchange of Solid Material between Planetary [Systems],” 2012, Astrobiology. 12 (8): 754–74. arXiv:1205.1059. Bibcode:2012AsBio..12..754B. doi:10.1089/ast.2012.0825. PMC 3440031. PMID 22897115. See also, "Impacts 'More Likely' to Have Spread Life from Earth," 8-23-2011, BBC. See also, Yuki Morono, Motoo Ito, et. al., "Aerobic Microbial Life Persists in Oxic Marine Sediment As Old as 101.5 Million Years," 7-8-2020, Nature Communications. 11 (1): 3626. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.3626M. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17330-1. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7387439. PMID 32724059.
  48. M.A. Line, "Panspermia in the Context of the Timing of the Origin of Life and Microbial Phylogeny," 2007, International Journal . Astrobiol. 3. 6 (3): 249–54. Bibcode:2007IJAsB...6..249L. See also, D.T. Wickramasinghe and D.A.  Allen, (1980). "The 3.4-µm Interstellar Absorption Feature," Nature., 1980, 287 (5782): 518–19. Bibcode:1980Natur.287.518W. See also, D.A. Allen Wickramasinghe, D. T. (1981). "Diffuse Interstellar Absorption Bands Between 2.9 and 4.0 µm," 1981, Nature. 294 (5838): 239–40.
  49. D.T. Wickramasinghe, and D.A. Allen, D. A. (1983). "Three Components of 3–4 μm Absorption Bands," 1983, Astrophysics and Space Science, 97 (2): 369–78. Bibcode:1983Ap&SS..97..369W.  See also, Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe & John Watson, Viruses from Space and Related Matters, 1986, University College Cardiff Press.
  50. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  51. Queenie H.S. Chan, et al. (10 January 2018). "Organic Matter in Extraterrestrial Water-bearing Salt Crystals," 1-10-2018, Science Advances. 4 (1, eaao3521): eaao3521. Bibcode:2018SciA....4O3521C. PMC 5770164. PMID 29349297.  See also, Staff, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, 1-10-2018, "Ingredients for Life Revealed in Meteorites that Fell to Earth – Study, Based in Part at Berkeley Lab, Aso Suggests Dwarf Planet in Asteroid Belt May Be a Source of Rich Organic Matter"AAAS – EurekAlert. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  52. From the Simple Wikipedia article on “Origin of Life.”
  53. J.F. Kasting, “Earth’s Early Atmosphere, 2-12-1992, Science, Vol. 259, Issue 5097, pp. 920-926.  DOI: 10.1126/science.11536547.
  54. Robert M. Hazen, The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet, 2013, Penguin Books, p. 128, paraphrased.
  55. See the Wikipedia article on Unicellular Organism. See also, Andrew Pohorille, and David Deamer, "Self-assembly and Function of Primitive Cell Membranes,” Research in Microbiology 6-23-2009. 160 (7): 449–456. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2009.06.004. PMID 19580865.
  56. I. Wagner and H. Musso, "New Naturally Occurring Amino Acids,” November, 1983, Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 22 (11): 816–828. doi:10.1002/anie.198308161.
  57. M.C. Latham, "Chapter 8. Body composition, the functions of food, metabolism and energy," 1997, Chapter 8: Human nutrition in the developing world. Food and Nutrition Series, 1997, No. 29.
  58. K. Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (6th ed.), 2011,. McGraw-Hill. p. 67. ISBN 9780073378251. See also: "Proteins," IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"), 1997, online corrected version, 2006, doi:10.1351/goldbook.P04898. See also: "What are Peptides," Zealand Pharma A/S. Archived from the original on 4-29-2019.
  59. J.M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, "Protein Structure and Function," 2002, Biochemistry, W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-4684-3.  See also, D.J. Selkoe, "Folding Proteins in Fatal Ways, December, 2003, Nature. 426 (6968): 900–4, bibcode:2003 Natur.426..900S. doi:10.1038/nature02264. PMID 14685251. S2CID 6451881. See also B. Alberts, D. Bray, K. Hopkin, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter, "Protein Structure and Function," Essential Cell Biology (Third ed.), 2010, Garland Science. pp. 120–70. ISBN 978-0-8153-4454-4.
  60. Prion Diseases, See also, See also, "Prion: Infectious Particle,” Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 60
  61. C.M. Dobson, "The Structural Basis of Protein Folding and its Links with Human Disease,” Feb. 2001, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences. 356 (1406): pp. 133–45. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0758. PMC 1088418. PMID 11260793. See also, Todd E. Golde, David R. Borchelt, Benoit I Giasson, and Jada Lewis, "Thinking Laterally About Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies,” 5-01-2013, Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (5): pp. 1847–1855. doi:10.1172/JCI66029. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 3635732. PMID 23635781.
  62. First Life on Earth Archived 2012-06-29 at, Retrieved on 2008-01-18.  See also: Letters of Charles Darwin, written in 1871, published in Darwin, Francis, ed., 1887, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter, Volume 3, London: John Murray.
  63. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  64. Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey, "Organic Compound Synthesis on the Primitive Earth." 1959, Science. 130 (3370): 245–51. Bibcode:1959Sci...130..245M. doi:10.1126/science.130.3370.245. PMID 13668555. See also, Lazcano and J.L. Bada, "The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry,” 2004, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres.” 33 (3): 235–242. Bibcode:2003OLEB...33..235L. doi:10.1023/A:1024807125069. PMID 14515862. S2CID 19515024.
  65.  Oró J, Kimball AP (August 1961). "Synthesis of purines under possible primitive earth conditions. I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94 (2): 217–27. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. PMID 13731263. See also,  Oró J, Kamat SS (April 1961). "Amino-acid synthesis from hydrogen cyanide under possible primitive earth conditions". Nature. 190 (4774): 442–3. Bibcode:1961Natur.190..442O. doi:10.1038/190442a0. PMID 13731262. S2CID 4219284. See also, Oró J (1967). Fox SW (ed.). Origins of Pre-biological Systems and of Their Molecular Matrices. New York Academic Press. p. 137.
  66. Johnson AP, Cleaves HJ, Dworkin JP, Glavin DP, Lazcano A, Bada JL (October 2008). "The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment". Science. 322 (5900): 404.  Bibcode:2008Sci...322..404J. doi:10.1126/science.1161527. PMID 18927386. S2CID 10134423. See also, "Lost' Miller–Urey Experiment Created More Of Life's Building Blocks". Science Daily. October 17, 2008. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  67. Laura Mallonee, “Turns Out Crystallized DNA Is Crazy Pretty,” 2015, WIRED Magazine,
  68. L.A. Moran LA (2011-03-24). "The Total Size of the human genome is very likely to be ~3,200 Mb," 3-24-11, Retrieved 2012-07-16. See also, "The Finished length of the human genome is 2.86 Gb,", 6-12-2006-06,  Retrieved 2012-07-16. See also, International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome," October 2004, Nature. 431 (7011): 931–45. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..931H. doi:10.1038/nature03001. PMID 15496913.
  69. Celia Henry Arnaud, “How the First Nucleotides Might Have Formed on Earth,” Chemical & Engineering News, 4-27-2016.
  70. Celia Henry Arnaud, “How the first nucleotides might have formed on Earth,” Chemical and Engineering News, 4-27-16, referencing the publication: “Spontaneous Formation and Base Pairing of Plausible Prebiotic Nucleotides in Water,” by Brian J. Cafferty, David M. Fialho, Jaheda Khanam, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy & Nicholas V. Hud, Nature Communications, volume 7, Article number: 11328 (2016).  DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11328).
  71. their results were published in the 2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS 2017; 4-10-2017, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700010114.
  72. S. Konikkat,“Dynamic Remodeling Events Drive the Removal of the ITS2 Spacer Sequence During Assembly of 60S Ribosomal Subunits,” February 2016, in S. cerevisiae (Ph.D. thesis), Carnegie Mellon University. See also, E.W.  Weiler and L. Nover, (2008). Allgemeine und Molekulare Botanik, in German, Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. p. 532. ISBN 978-3-13-152791-2. See also J. de la Cruz J, K. Karbstein, and J.L. Woolford, (2015). "Functions of ribosomal proteins in assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 84: 93–129. doi:10.1146/annurev-biochem-060614-033917. PMC 4772166. PMID 25706898.
  76. Alexis Madrigal, “Self-Replicating Chemicals Evolve Into Lifelike Ecosystem,” Wired, 1/8, 1889.
  83. Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Bender KS, Buckley DH, Stahl DA (2014). Brock Biology of Microorganisms. Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-0321897398. See also, R. Rabus, TA Hansen, and F Widdel,   "Dissimilatory Sulfate-and Sulfur-Reducing Prokaryotes," 2006, The Prokaryotes, 2006, Springer Publishing, pp. 659–768. doi:10.1007/0-387-30742-7_22. ISBN 978-0-387-25492-0.
  84., 85 LL Barton and GD Fauque, “Biochemistry, Physiology and Biotechnology of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, 2009, pp. 41–98. doi:10.1016/s0065-2164(09)01202-7. ISBN 9780123748034. PMID 19426853.
  86., footnotes 2, 12, 13, and 14.
  88. Robert Hazen, Ibid., p. 135.
  90. Christopher Packham, “Researchers Produce all RNA Nucleobases in Simulated Primordial Earth,” 4-21-2017, News, See also, Walter Gilbert, "The RNA World," February 1986, Nature 319 (6055): 618. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..618G. doi:10.1038/319618a0. S2CID 8026658.
  91. Khan Academy, RNA World AP.BIO: SYI‑3 (EU), SYI‑3.E (LO), SYI‑3.E.2 (EK)
  92. BH Patel, C Percivalle, DJ Ritson, CD Duffy, and JD Sutherland, "Common Origins of RNA, Protein and Lipid Precursors in a Cyanosulfidic Protometabolism,"April 2015, Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301–7. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P. doi:10.1038/nchem.2202. PMC 4568310. PMID 25803468.
  93. Nicholas Wade, Nicholas (May 4, 2015). "Making Sense of the Chemistry That Led to Life on Earth," 5-4-2015, The New York Times.  See also, SD Copley, E Smith, and HJ Morowitz, "The Origin of the RNA World: Co-evolution of Genes and Metabolism," Bioorganic Chemistry. 35 (6): 430–43.
  94. M. Root-Bernstein M and R. Root-Bernstein, "The Ribosome as a Missing Link in the Evolution of Life," February 2015, Journal of Theoretical Biology. 367: 130–158. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.11.025. PMID 25500179.
  95. “The RNA Origin of Life,” NOVA Labs, See also, Kahn Academy, “The RNA Origin of Life,
  96. Liang Shen and Ji Hong-Fang, "Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes," 2011, PLOS ONE. 6 (7): e22494. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...622494S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022494. PMC 3138788. PMID 21789260.
  97. R.J. Mackenzie, “DNA vs. RNA – 5 Key Differences and Comparison,” 12-18-2020, Genomics Research from Technology Networks.
  98. “Genome Variations: How Different is One Human Genome from Another?,” Jan 15, 2003,,resources, Ch. 4_1.
  99. Robert Hazen, Ibid. pp. 129-30.
  100. Kendall Powell, “How Biologists are creating life-like cells from scratch: Built from the bottom up, synthetic cells and other creations are starting to come together and could soon test the boundaries of life,” Nature, News Feature 11-7-2018.”
  101. Kendall Powell, How biologists are creating life-like cells from scratch, Nature Magazine, Nature 563, 172-175 (2018)
  102. Emily Singer, “Mongrel Microbe Tests Story of Complex Life,” 11-30-2015, Quanta Magazine, re-reported in Scientific American
  103. Guenther Witzany, "Crucial Steps to Life: From Chemical Reactions to Code Using Agents," 2006, BioSystems. 140: 49–57. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2015.12.007. PMID 26723230.
  104. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, a video film, 9-6-2019,
  105. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  106. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  107. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  108. Bobby Azarian,The Romance of Reality: How the Universe Organizes Itself to Create Life, Consciousness, and Cosmic Complexity, 2022, BenBella Books.
  109. A. Bejan and J. P. Zane, Design in Nature: How the Constructural Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organization, 2013, First Anchor Books, flyleaf.
  110. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid. See also, Jeremy England, “Statistical physics of self-replication,” 2013, The Journal of Chemical Physics (AIP),
  111. Natalie Wolchover, "A New Physics Theory of Life," 1-28-2014, Scientific American.
  112. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  113. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  114. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  115. Natalie Wolchover, "A New Physics Theory of Life," Scientific American, 1-28-2014. See also, Santi Tafarella, "Dissipation-Driven Adaptive Organization: Is Jeremy England the Next Charles Darwin?," 1-28-2014, Prometheus Unbound. See also, Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  116. Nick Lane, The Vital Question: Energy, Evolution, and the Origins of Complex Life, 2015, W.W. Norton pp. See Lane, 58-62.
  117. Robert. M. Hazen, The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet, 2012, Penguin Books.
  118. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  119. 1974, Bantam Books. From Essays that originally appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine between 1971 and 1973.
  120. Arjun Berera,"Space Dust Collisions as a Planetary Escape Mechanism," 11-6-2015, Astrobiology.7 (12): 1274–1282. arXiv:1711.01895. Bibcode:2017AsBio..17.1274B. doi:10.1089/ast.2017.1662. PMID 29148823. S2CID 126012488. See also, Wikipedia, Earliest Known Life Forms. See also Wikipedia, “Life on Mars. 
  121. Science Daily, June 16, 2020, from Univ of British Colombia.
  122. Hazen, Ibid., p. 128.
  123. Hazen, Ibid., pp.129-130.
  124. Arvin Ash, Ibid.
  125. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  126. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter, 9-6-2019, a video film,
  127. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter,” a video film, 9-6-2019,
  128. Juli Peretó, "Controversies on the Origin of Life," 2005, International Microbiology. 8 (1): 23–31. PMID 15906258. See also, David Warmflash and Benjamin Warmflash, "Did Life Come from Another World?," Scientific American, November 2005, 293 (5): 64–71. Bibcode:2005SciAm.293e..64W. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1105-64. PMID 16318028.
  129. Nick Lane, he Vital Question: Energy, Evolution, and the Origins of Complex Life, 2015, W.W. Norton & Co., pp. 1 and 4-5.
  130. Nick Lane, The Vital Question, Ibid., p. 53-4.) 
  131. Nancy Kleckner, J.K. Fisher, Mathieu Stouf, et al"The bacterial nucleoid: nature, dynamics and sister segregation” 12-01-2014, Current Opinion in Microbiology Growth and development, 127.137.137. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2014.10.001PMC 4359759PMID 25460806.
  132. "Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure,” | Science Primer".
  133. Wikipedia article on Unicellular Organism.
  134. M. Di Giulio, "The Universal Ancestor and the Ancestor of Bacteria Were Hyperthermophiles," Dec 2003, Journal of Molecular Evolution. 57 (6): 721–30. Bibcode:2003JMolE..57..721D. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-2522-6. PMID 14745541. S2CID 7041325. See also, F.U. Battistuzzi, A Feijao, and S.B. Hedges, "A Genomic Timescale of Prokaryote Evolution: Insights into the Origin of Methanogenesis, Phototrophy, and the Colonization of Land," Nov, 2004, BMC Evolutionary Biology. 4: 44. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44. PMC 533871. PMID 15535883.  See also, Martin Homann, et al.. "Microbial Life and Biogeochemical Cycling on Land 3,220 Million Years Ago," 7-23-2018, Nature Geoscience. 11 (9): 665–671. Bibcode:2018NatGe..11..665H. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0190-9. S2CID 134935568. All noted sources are from the Wikipedia article on Bacteria,
  135. Robert M. Hazen, Ibid., p. 134.
  139. Robert. M. Hazen, The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet, 2012, Penguin Books, p. 131.
  140. Robert. M. Hazen, The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet, 2012, Penguin Books, p. 131.
  141. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 9-1-2017. See also, "Calcium: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals," 7-9-2019, Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. National Institutes of Health.
  142. Juli Pereto, "Controversies on the Origin of Life, 2005, International Microbiology. 8 (1): 23–31. PMID 15906258. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2015. See also, Wikipedia article on Abiogenesis.
  143. Nick Lane (Professor of Evolutionary Biochemistry at University College, London), The Vital Question: Energy, Evolution, and the Origins of Complex Life, 2015, W.W. Norton, p.27.
  144. Hazen, Ibid. p. 147.
  145. See, “What is the Body Made Of,” online at New Scientist.
  146. K Ruiz-Mirazo, C. Briones, and A. de la Escosura, “Chemical Roots of Biological Evolution: The Origins of Life as a Process of Development of Autonomous Functional Systems,” 4-26-2017, Open Biology, The Royal Society Publishing.
  147. Guenther Witzany, "Crucial Steps to Life: From Chemical Reactions to Code Using Agents," 2016, Biosystems. 140: 49–57. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2015.12.007. PMID 2672323*0. See also, Elizabeth Howell, "How Did Life Become Complex, And Could It Happen Beyond Earth?" 12-8-2016, Astrobiology Magazine.
  148. Richard I. Masel, Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis, 2001, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-24197-0. See also: Louise Lerner, “7 Things You May Not Know about Catalysis,” Argonne National Laboratory, 2011.
  149. "Market Report: Global Catalyst Market," (2nd ed.), Acmite Market Intelligence.
  150. J.M. Lowenstein, Methods in Enzymology, 1969, Volume 13: Citric Acid Cycle, Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-181870-8. See also, L. Kay and P.D. Weitzman, Krebs' Citric Acid Cycle: Half a Century and Still Turning,1987, Biochemical Society, p. 25. ISBN 978-0-904498-22-6. See also Hazen, Ibid., p. 143.
  151. Joanna C. Xavier, et al.,  See also,
  152. Stephen J. Gould, The Lying Stones of Marrakech: Penultimate Reflections in Natural History, 2001, Vintage, pp. 119–121. ISBN 978-0-09-928583-0. See also, Ernst Mayr, Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of An Evolutionist, 1988, Harvard University Press. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-674-89666-6.
  154. Tom Herrmann and Sandeep Sharma, “Physiology, Membrane,” 3-2-2019, Stat Pearls, SIU School of Medicine, Baptist Regional Medical Center, PMID 30855799.
  155. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis – How Life Came from Inanimate Matter,” a video film, 9-6-2019,
  156. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  157. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  158. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  159. Ann Taylor and Scott Feller, the entry for “Lipids” in Chemistry Explained, online at
  160. Andrew Pohorille and David Deamer, "Self-assembly and Function of Primitive Cell Membranes," 6-23-2009, Research in Microbiology, 160 (7): 449–456. 
  161. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis, Ibid.
  162. Arvin Ash, Abiogenesis, Ibid. See also, Caitlin Cornell, Roy Black, Mengjun Xue, et al., “Prebiotic Amino-acids Bind to and Stabilize Prebiotic Fatty Acid Membranes,” Edited by David Weitz, 1-8-2019, Harvard University, Proceeds of the National Academy of Sciences.  https: 1900275116.
  163. Arvin Ash, “Abiogenesis,” Ibid.
  164. Katerina Schilling and Mattias Zessner, "Foam in the Aquatic Environment," Water Research, 10-1-2011, 45 (15): 4355–4366. ISSN 0043-1354. PMID 21757217.
  165. See the Wikipedia article on soap.
  166. Marauo Davis, “What Is Crystalline Structure,” 5-31-2020.
  167. "The Idea that Life Began as Clay Crystals is 50 Years Old," 2016-08-24. Retrieved 11-10-2019.
  168. Elena Boldryeva, “Crystalline Amino-acids: A Link Between Chemistry, Materials Science and Biology," a paper in Models, Mysteries and Magic of Molecules, J.C. Boeyens and J. Ogilvie, eds., 2008, Springer Dordrecht, DOI See
  169. "What are Diatoms?" Diatoms of North America. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  170. P. Treguer, D.M. Nelson, A.J. Van Bennekom, et. al., "The Silica Balance in the World Ocean: A Re-estimate," 1995, Science. 268 (5209): 375–9. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..375T. doi:10.1126/science.268.5209.375. PMID 17746543. S2CID 5672525.
  171. F.E. Round and David J. Chapman, Eds., Progress in Phycological Research: 1991, vol. 7.
  172. Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo-Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom, 2005, W.W. Norton.
  173. Professor Richard O. Prum, The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World – and Us, 2017, Doubleday.
  174. “Liquid Crystal Life,” Astrobiology Magazine, 11-30-2007.
  175. “Liquid Crystal Life,” Astrobiology Magazine, 11-30-2007.
  176. H.Schneider, "Binding Mechanisms in Supramolecular Complexes," 2009, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl, 48 (22): 3924–77. doi:10.1002/anie.200802947. PMID 19415701.
  177. J. Lehn, Supramolecular Chemistry,1993, Wiley, VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-29311-7.
  179. Hans Pohlsander, The Emperor Constantine, 2004, Routledge, pp 38-39. ISBN 0-415-31937-4. Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2.
  180. “Legitimization Under Constantine,” FRONTLINE: From Jesus to Christ, April 1998, PBS. Available in print at
  181. Dr. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 347.
  182. R. Gerberding and J. H. Moran Cruz, Medieval Worlds, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, pp. 55–56.
  183. , John Demetrius John Georgacas, "The Names of Constantinople", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (The Johns Hopkins University Press), 1947, pp. 346-67. doi: 10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
  184. Socrates II.13, cited by J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, pp. 74-5.
  185. J. D. Crossan, Jesus, A Revolutionary Biography, Ibid., p. 101.
  186.   Dominic Crossan, Ibid. P. 201.
  187. The Jesus Seminar, et. al., The Five Gospels, Ibid., pp 5-8.
  188. Burton Mack, Who Wrote the New Testament: The Making of the Christian Myth, 1989, Harper Collins, pp. 6-7.
  189. T.F. Glick, Glick, T.F. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia, 1970, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 178. ISBN 0-674-46675-6p.
  190. See, for example, Thomas Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization, 1995, Anchor Books (Random House).
  191. Cyrus H. Gordon and Gary A. Rendsburg, The Bible and the Ancient Near East (4th ed.), 1997, W.W. Norton & Co., p. 36. ISBN 978-0-393-31689-6. See also, Nicolas Wyatt, Space and Time in the Religious Life of the Near East, 2001, A&C Black. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-567-04942-1.
  192. Kenneth M. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 2018, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck., pp. 16–18; 157–159; 269–271; and 279–285. ISBN 978-3-16-155753-8.
  193. Joan E. Strassmann, Joan E.; Robert E. Page; Gene E. Robinson; and Thomas D. Seeley, (March 2011). "Kin Selection and Eusociality," March 2011, Nature, 471 (7339): E5–E6. Bibcode:2011Natur.471E...5S. doi:10.1038/nature09833. PMID 21430723. S2CID 205224117.
  194. Karen L. King, "Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries, 2009, Frontline: The First Christians.
  195. Antii Marjanen, The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Documents, 1996, Brill. ISBN 9004106588.
  196. James and D.E. Desiree Hurtak, Pistis Sophia Text and Commentary, 1999, Academy for Future Science, 1999. See also, Pistis Sophia: A Gnostic Gospel, translated by G.R.S. Mead, 1991 and 2006, The Book Tree. ISBN 978-58509-268-3.
  197. Richard J. Hooper, “The Crucifixion of “Mary Magdalene: The Historical Tradition of the First Apostle and the Ancient Church's Campaign to Suppress It,” Sanctuary, 2005 p. 81. ISBN 978-0-9746995-4-7.2005.
  198. Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, 1993, Riverhead Books, The Berkley Publishing Group.
  199. Holy See Bulletin 10/06/2016.
  200. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText".
  201. Article on “Indulgences,” F.L. Cross, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press. 2005,
  202. “The Historical Origin of Indulgences,” Library, See also, Johann Peter Kirsch, "The Reformation". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12., Transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras, Robert Appleton Company
  203. See “Calvin and Geneva,” The Carrie Library, Univ. of Kansas
  204. “John Calvin,” The Institutes of the Christian Religion, II.1.8, LCC, 2 vols., trans. Ford Lewis Battles, ed. John T. McNeill, 1960, Westminster, p. 251 (p. 217 of CCEL edition).
  205. William Gilbert, Renaissance and Reformation, unpublished, 1992. A donated E-Books under Copyright.
  206. Richard M. Golden, "Satan in Europe: The Geography of Witch Hunts,” 1997, in Wolfe, Michael (ed.), Changing Identities in Early Modern France. Duke University Press. p. 234.