Essays

The Book of Continuing Creation:
Finding Life’s Meaning and Purpose – In Nature, Reason, and Science
(Earth-centered spirituality, without myths or miracle stories)

The Book’s Essays will be posted month-by-month, as they are written.  Each Essay stands alone, independent of the others; but you will want to read the Introduction and How to Read This Book first (they are both very short), and then read the Overview.  The 27-page Overview presents all the major concepts in the Book of Continuing Creation.  A list of all the posted Essays appears in the right-hand column.  

(This website also contains all of J.X. Mason’s weekly Author’s Blog Posts.  If you wish, you can subscribe to the Blog Posts and receive them in your email.  Everything is free and without advertising.)

 

The Principles We Hold True

The Principles I (or We) Hold True Continuing Creation is not a religion; it is a practice, a discipline, and a spiritual path. I recognize the Continuing Creation of the Cosmos – star by star, creature by creature, invention by invention, book by book. I am a Participant and Co-creator in Continuing Creation’s dynamic patterns […]

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Evaluating Islam

“In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of worlds.” Most Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgment. You do we worship, and Your aid we seek. Show us the straight way.”              — The Holy Quran,1:6 100 Overview of Islam In prior Essays, […]

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Evaluating Buddhism

  Introduction This is another of our Essays that evaluates an important world religion or spiritual path. Our aim has been to compare each of them to our own Practice — the path of Continuing Creation: The Growing, Organizing, Direction of the Cosmos.  As we go along, we have been explaining the Strengths and Shortcomings […]

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Is Continuing Creation a Spiritual Path?

  Is Continuing Creation a Spiritual Path?  Yes and no. The word “spiritual” has different meanings to different people.  Conventional or Traditional Spirituality Most people feel that spiritual only relates to things that are supernatural and incorporeal. These include phenomena that are part of conventional religions — God, saints, ghosts, angels, religious rituals like the […]

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  1. Hans Pohlsander, The Emperor Constantine, 2004, Routledge, pp 38-39. ISBN 0-415-31937-4. Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2.
  2. “Legitimization Under Constantine,” FRONTLINE: From Jesus to Christ, April 1998, PBS. Available in print at https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/why/legitimization.html.
  3. Dr. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 347.
  4. R. Gerberding and J. H. Moran Cruz, Medieval Worlds, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, pp. 55–56.
  5. , John Demetrius John Georgacas, "The Names of Constantinople", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (The Johns Hopkins University Press), 1947, pp. 346-67. doi: 10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
  6. Socrates II.13, cited by J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, pp. 74-5.
  7. J. D. Crossan, Jesus, A Revolutionary Biography, Ibid., p. 101.
  8.   Dominic Crossan, Ibid. P. 201.
  9. The Jesus Seminar, et. al., The Five Gospels, Ibid., pp 5-8.
  10. Burton Mack, Who Wrote the New Testament: The Making of the Christian Myth, 1989, Harper Collins, pp. 6-7.
  11. T.F. Glick, Glick, T.F. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia, 1970, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 178. ISBN 0-674-46675-6p.
  12. See, for example, Thomas Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization, 1995, Anchor Books (Random House).
  13. Cyrus H. Gordon and Gary A. Rendsburg, The Bible and the Ancient Near East (4th ed.), 1997, W.W. Norton & Co., p. 36. ISBN 978-0-393-31689-6. See also, Nicolas Wyatt, Space and Time in the Religious Life of the Near East, 2001, A&C Black. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-567-04942-1.
  14. Kenneth M. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 2018, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck., pp. 16–18; 157–159; 269–271; and 279–285. ISBN 978-3-16-155753-8.
  15. Joan E. Strassmann, Joan E.; Robert E. Page; Gene E. Robinson; and Thomas D. Seeley, (March 2011). "Kin Selection and Eusociality," March 2011, Nature, 471 (7339): E5–E6. Bibcode:2011Natur.471E...5S. doi:10.1038/nature09833. PMID 21430723. S2CID 205224117.
  16. Karen L. King, "Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries, 2009, Frontline: The First Christians.
  17. Antii Marjanen, The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Documents, 1996, Brill. ISBN 9004106588.
  18. James and D.E. Desiree Hurtak, Pistis Sophia Text and Commentary, 1999, Academy for Future Science, 1999. See also, Pistis Sophia: A Gnostic Gospel, translated by G.R.S. Mead, 1991 and 2006, The Book Tree. ISBN 978-58509-268-3.
  19. Richard J. Hooper, “The Crucifixion of “Mary Magdalene: The Historical Tradition of the First Apostle and the Ancient Church's Campaign to Suppress It,” Sanctuary, 2005 p. 81. ISBN 978-0-9746995-4-7.2005.
  20. Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, 1993, Riverhead Books, The Berkley Publishing Group.
  21. Holy See Bulletin 10/06/2016.
  22. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText". www.vatican.va.
  23. Article on “Indulgences,” F.L. Cross, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press. 2005,
  24. “The Historical Origin of Indulgences,” Library, www.catholiccultire.org. See also, Johann Peter Kirsch, "The Reformation". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12., Transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras, Robert Appleton Company
  25. See “Calvin and Geneva,” The Carrie Library, Univ. of Kansas
  26. “John Calvin,” The Institutes of the Christian Religion, II.1.8, LCC, 2 vols., trans. Ford Lewis Battles, ed. John T. McNeill, 1960, Westminster, p. 251 (p. 217 of CCEL edition).
  27. William Gilbert, Renaissance and Reformation, unpublished, 1992. A donated E-Books under Copyright.
  28. Richard M. Golden, "Satan in Europe: The Geography of Witch Hunts,” 1997, in Wolfe, Michael (ed.), Changing Identities in Early Modern France. Duke University Press. p. 234.
  29. Bart D. Ehrman, How Jesus Became God, 2014, Harper Collins, p. 105.
  30. Matthew Hartke, “An Unshakable Kingdom: How Cognitive Dissonance Explains Christianity,” Resurrection Review, Nov. 11, 2022. Online at mlharke.wordpress.com
  31. Shaye I.D. Cohen: Samuel Ungerleider Professor of Judaic Studies and Professor of Religious Studies, Brown University, “The Path to Victory,”  From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians, Part One, 1998.  Frontline, PBS.
  32. Dr. Bart Ehrman, Ibid, pp. 90-92.
  33. J.D. Crossan, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, 1994, Harper Collins, pp 5-6.
  34. J.D. Crossan, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, 1994, Harper Collins, pp. 89-91.
  35. Bart D. Ehrman, Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in The Bible, 2009, Harper Collins. See also a Wikipedia article, “Jesus Interrupted,” which summarizes that Ehrman book. 
  36. Bernard P. Robinson, "Matthew's Nativity Stories: Historical and Theological Questions for Today's Readers," in Jeremy Corley, (ed.), New Perspectives on the Nativity, 2009, Bloomsbury, p. 111. ISBN 9780567613790.
  37. Mary Beth Gladwell, The Shepherd Motif in the Old and New Testament, Dwell Community Church.
  38. Anders Hultgård, "The Magi and the Star—the Persian Background in Texts and Iconography," 1998, in Peter Schalk and Michael Stausberg, (eds.), Being Religious and Living through the Eyes': Studies in Religious Iconography and Iconology: A Celebratory Publication in Honour of Professor Jan Bergman, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis: Historia Religionum, 14. Uppsala, Almqvist & Wiksell International. pp. 215–25. ISBN 978-91-554-4199-9.
  39. Dorothy Lee, Transfiguration (New Century Theology), 2004, Bloomsbury Academic, Continuum Publishing, p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8264-7595-4.
  40. Robert W. Funk, Roy W. Hoover, and The Jesus Seminar, The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus, 1993, Polebridge Press, Harper Collins, p. 480.
  41. Bart Ehrman, Ibid. pp. 76-77.
  42. Crossan, Ibid. p.163.
  43. The Five Gospels, Ibid., p. xiii.
  44. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., pp130-131.
  45. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 132.
  46. Sir James Frazer. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, 1993, Ware: Wordsworth.
  47. Andrew Newberg, M.D., Eugene D’Aquili, M.D., PhD, and Vince Rause, Why God Won’t Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief, 2001, Ballantine Books, 62.
  48. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 133.
  49. Shaye I.D. Cohen: Samuel Ungerleider Professor of Judaic Studies and Professor of Religious Studies Brown University. “The Path to Victory.” For Frontline: From Jesus to Christ.
  50. Edward H. Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism, 2004, Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4324-5.
  51. (Paraphrasing) Christopher Hitchens, Letters to a Young Contrarian, 2001, Basic Books (Perseus Book Group).
  52. Roberta C. Chesnut, "The Two Prosopa in Nestorius' Bazaar of Heracleides,” The Journal of Theological Studies, 1978, pp. 392-409. doi:10.1093/jts/XXIX.2.392. JSTOR 23958267. 1978, p-392-409.
  53. Wendy Doniger, “Bhakti Hinduism,” in Encyclopedia Britannica.
  54. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions That Run the World, 2010, Harper One, Harper Collins, pp. 188-190.
  55. The Jesus Seminar, et al., The Five Gospels, Ibid, p. xv. See also, Gary M. Burge, "Gospel of John," in Craig A. Evans (ed.), The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus, 2014.  ISBN 978-1-317-72224-3.
  56. Chip Rowe, Interview of Christopher Dawkins,” Playboy Magazine, 8-20-2012.  Pp 63-66 and 135-138. See also, Chip Rowe, "Playboy Interview with Richard Dawkins", Playboy, Vol. 59, No. 7 (September 2012), pp. 63-66, 135-138, PDF available online.
  57. “Heraclitus,” Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed), 1999.
  58. Christof Rapp, "Aristotle's Rhetoric," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Spring 2010 Edition. See also, Paul Anthony Rahe, Republics Ancient and Modern: The Ancien Régime in Classical Greece, University of North Carolina Press, 1994, p.21.  ISBN 0-8078-4473-X.
  59. A.Tripolitis, Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman Age, pp. 37–38. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
  60. Philo, De Profugis, cited in Gerald Friedlander, Hellenism and Christianity, P. Vallentine, 1912, pp. 114–115.
  61. A.Tripolitis, Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman Age, pages 37–38. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. See also, James Lindsay, Studies in European Philosophy, 2006, p. 53. ISBN 1-4067-0173-4.
  62. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 74.
  63. David L. Jeffrey (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 460. ISBN 978-0802836342.
  64. Stephen Mitchell, Tao Te Ching – A new English Translation, Harper Perennial, 1992, Chapter 4.
  65. William R. Murry, Reason and Reverence: Religious Humanism for the 21st Century, 2007. ISBN 978-1558965188.
  66. Gordon Fee, "Paul and the Trinity: The experience of Christ and the Spirit for Paul's Understanding of God," 2002, in Davis, Stephen (ed.). The Trinity: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Trinity. Oxford University Press, p.52. ISBN 9780199246120.
  67. Bruce M. Metzger & Michael D. Coogan, The Oxford Companion to the Bible, 1993, Oxford University Press, pp 782-783.ISBN 978-0-19-974391-9.1993.
  68. Elaine Pagels and Karen L. King, Karen L. (2007). Reading Judas: The Gospel of Judas and the Shaping of Christianity, 2007, Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0670038459.
  69. Mack Burton, Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth, 1995, Harper, pp. 6-7.
  70. Bart D. Ehrman, Bart D. Jesus, Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (revised ed.). Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 75–78. ISBN 0-19-512473-1.  See also, Elaine Pagels "The Secret Gospel of Thomas," June 4, 2003, National Public Radio,
  71. Stefan Lovgren, "Lost Gospel Revealed; Says Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him," National Geographic News, April 6, 2006, Retrieved 2007-04-22.  See also, Elaine Pagels and Karen King, "The Gospel of Judas and the Shaping of Christianity,” National Public Radio, March 14, 2007.
  72. Hans Pohlsander, The Emperor Constantine, 2004, Routledge, pp 38-39. ISBN 0-415-31937-4. Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2.
  73. “Legitimization Under Constantine,” FRONTLINE: From Jesus to Christ, April 1998, PBS. Available in print at https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/why/legitimization.html.
  74. Dr. Bart Ehrman, Ibid., p. 347.
  75. R. Gerberding and J. H. Moran Cruz, Medieval Worlds, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, pp. 55–56.
  76. , John Demetrius John Georgacas, "The Names of Constantinople", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (The Johns Hopkins University Press), 1947, pp. 346-67. doi: 10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
  77. Socrates II.13, cited by J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, pp. 74-5.
  78. J. D. Crossan, Jesus, A Revolutionary Biography, Ibid., p. 101.
  79.   Dominic Crossan, Ibid. P. 201.
  80. The Jesus Seminar, et. al., The Five Gospels, Ibid., pp 5-8.
  81. Burton Mack, Who Wrote the New Testament: The Making of the Christian Myth, 1989, Harper Collins, pp. 6-7.
  82. T.F. Glick, Glick, T.F. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia, 1970, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 178. ISBN 0-674-46675-6p.
  83. See, for example, Thomas Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization, 1995, Anchor Books (Random House).
  84. Cyrus H. Gordon and Gary A. Rendsburg, The Bible and the Ancient Near East (4th ed.), 1997, W.W. Norton & Co., p. 36. ISBN 978-0-393-31689-6. See also, Nicolas Wyatt, Space and Time in the Religious Life of the Near East, 2001, A&C Black. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-567-04942-1.
  85. Kenneth M. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 2018, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck., pp. 16–18; 157–159; 269–271; and 279–285. ISBN 978-3-16-155753-8.
  86. Joan E. Strassmann, Joan E.; Robert E. Page; Gene E. Robinson; and Thomas D. Seeley, (March 2011). "Kin Selection and Eusociality," March 2011, Nature, 471 (7339): E5–E6. Bibcode:2011Natur.471E...5S. doi:10.1038/nature09833. PMID 21430723. S2CID 205224117.
  87. Karen L. King, "Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries, 2009, Frontline: The First Christians.
  88. Antii Marjanen, The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Documents, 1996, Brill. ISBN 9004106588.
  89. James and D.E. Desiree Hurtak, Pistis Sophia Text and Commentary, 1999, Academy for Future Science, 1999. See also, Pistis Sophia: A Gnostic Gospel, translated by G.R.S. Mead, 1991 and 2006, The Book Tree. ISBN 978-58509-268-3.
  90. Richard J. Hooper, “The Crucifixion of “Mary Magdalene: The Historical Tradition of the First Apostle and the Ancient Church's Campaign to Suppress It,” Sanctuary, 2005 p. 81. ISBN 978-0-9746995-4-7.2005.
  91. Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, 1993, Riverhead Books, The Berkley Publishing Group.
  92. Holy See Bulletin 10/06/2016.
  93. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText". www.vatican.va.
  94. Article on “Indulgences,” F.L. Cross, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press. 2005,
  95. “The Historical Origin of Indulgences,” Library, www.catholiccultire.org. See also, Johann Peter Kirsch, "The Reformation". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12., Transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras, Robert Appleton Company
  96. See “Calvin and Geneva,” The Carrie Library, Univ. of Kansas
  97. “John Calvin,” The Institutes of the Christian Religion, II.1.8, LCC, 2 vols., trans. Ford Lewis Battles, ed. John T. McNeill, 1960, Westminster, p. 251 (p. 217 of CCEL edition).
  98. William Gilbert, Renaissance and Reformation, unpublished, 1992. A donated E-Books under Copyright.
  99. Richard M. Golden, "Satan in Europe: The Geography of Witch Hunts,” 1997, in Wolfe, Michael (ed.), Changing Identities in Early Modern France. Duke University Press. p. 234.
  100. The Holy Quran, Chapter 1, Verses 1-6, translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2001, Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. See also, Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions That Run the World, 2010, Harper One, p. 31.
  101. Quotation is from the Wikipedia article, "Islam." See also, "Islamism – An Overview,” ScienceDirect Topics," www.sciencedirect.com, retrieved 9-10-2021.  See also, Jeffrey M. Bale, "Islamism and Totalitarianism," 6-1-2009, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): pp. 73–96. doi:10.1080/14690760903371313. ISSN 1469-0764. S2CID 14540501.
  102. John L. Esposito, "Islam," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5. See also F.E. Peters, 2009. "Allāh," also in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5. See also "Muslim Population by Country 2021," World Population Review. Retrieved 7-22-2021.
  103. Quran 17:106.  See also, Gray Lambert, The Leaders Are Coming, 2013, WestBow Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-4497-6013-7. See also, Roy H. Williams and Michael R. Drew, Pendulum: How Past Generations Shape Our Present and Predict Our Future, 2012, Vanguard Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-59315-706-7.  See also, Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths (Rev. ed.), 1997, I. B. Tauris Publishers. p. 338.
  104. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One: the eight Rival Religions that Run the World, 2010, Harper One, p. 32.
  105. Merv Fowler, Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic, 1999, p. 34: "
  106. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, p.  31
  107. How to Meditate, 1974, Little, Brown and Company.  Also available as a PDF file online.
  108. Stephen Prothero, Ibid, p. 32.
  109. Sahner, Christian C. (June 2017). ""The Monasticism of My Community is Jihad": A Debate on Asceticism, Sex, and Warfare in Early Islam". Arabica. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. 64 (2): 149–183. doi:10.1163/15700585-12341453. ISSN 1570-0585. S2CID 165034994.
  110. Quran, 9:41. See also, "Jihad: The Arguable Sixth Pillar of Islam." courses.washington.edu. See also, "What is Jihadism?," BBC News, 2014-12-11.
  111. Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, ed. "Jihad," 2013, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press.
  112. Natana DeLong, "Jihad,” Oxford Bibliographies – Islamic Studies, 2-22-18 and 5-10-07, Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0045.
  113. Stephen Prothero, Ibid., p. 53.
  114. Professor Malcolm Clark, Islam for Dummies, 2003, Wiley Publishing, pp. 100-102.
  115. An Abridged Koran: The Reconstructed Historical Koran, edited by Professor Bill Warner, 2006, Center for the Study of Political Islam, pp. xii-xix.
  116. Malik Jamal, Islam in South Asia: Revised, Enlarged and Updated Second Edition, 2010, BRILL. p. 580. ISBN 9789004422711.
  117. John Wansbrough, Qurani Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation, 2004, Prometheus Books.
  118. Christopher Hitchens, God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything, 2007, Hachette Book Group, p. 132.  
  119. Will Jones, “What If Muhammad Didn’t Write the Quran?,” 4-26-18, Crisis Magazine: A Voice for the Faithful Catholic Laity.
  120. See https://www.psephizo.com/life-ministry/who-really-wrote-the-quran/.
  121. Dr. Bill Warner, Ed., An Abridged Koran: The Reconstructed Historical Koran, 2006, Center for the Study of Political Islam.
  122. David S. Powers, “On the Abrogation of the Bequest Verses,” Journal: Arabica, Sept. 1982, 29(3), Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 246-247 and 249-287.
  123. Christopher Hitchens, God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything, 2007 and 2009, Twelve: Hachette Book Group, pp. 38-9.
  124. “Patricia Crone, Questioning Scholar of Islamic History, Dies at 70,” by Sam Roberts, NYT, 7/22/15.
  125. An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed, “Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law,” 1990, Syracuse University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780815627067.  See also. Patrick Sookhdeo, "1, Sources of Islam". Understanding Islamic Theology,” Sources of Islam, 2013, BookBaby. ISBN 9780989290548, Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  126. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., p.58.
  127. Dr. Malcolm Clark, Islam for Dummies, 2003, Wiley Publishing, p. 190. 127

    Muhammad's attitude and treatment towards his children, enshrined in hadith literature, is viewed by Muslims as an exemplar to be imitated. 128 Karen-Marie Yust, ed., Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives from the World's Religious Traditions, 2006, Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 72-3.  ISBN 9780742544635.

  128. William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad Prophet and Statesman, 1974, Oxford University Press, p. 230.  See also, Wikipedia article, “Islam and Children.”
  129. William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad Prophet and Statesman, 1974, Oxford University Press, p.230.
  130. Professor William E. Phipps, Muhammad and Jesus: A Comparison of the Prophets and Their Teachings, 1999, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 120.
  131. Richard Rodriguez, “Essay: Desert Religions,” for PBS NewsHour, broadcast 7/8/02.  See also, Frederick Turner, Beyond Geography: The Western Spirit Against the Wilderness, 1937, Rutgers University Press.
  132. Alexander Stille, “Scholars Are Quietly Offering New Theories of the Quran,” New York Times (and International Herald Tribune), March 4, 2002.
  133. Malcolm Clark, Islam for Dummies, Ibid., pp. 82-3.
  134. Ministry of Hajj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, https://www.hajinformation.com/main/f0111.htm.
  135. Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 91.
  136. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., p. 39.
  137. See, Islam in Indonesia.
  138. Malcolm Clark, Islam for Dummies, Ibid., page 82.
  139. Bruce B. Lawrence, Who is Allah?, 2015, University of North Carolina Press, p. 3.
  140. See, “Signs of God in the Quran,” Islam4U,” https://islam4u.pro/blog/signs-of-god-in-the-quran/
  141. See “Ideal Length of the Beard,” Dar-Al-Ifta Al-Missriyyah.
  142. See 99 Names of Allah (Al Asma Ul Husna).
  143. Mustansir Mir, The Qur'ān as Literature Volume 10, No.5, 2000, Renaissance, © Islamic Awareness.  See also Quran 8:10, “God may grant victory, being powerful; or may allow defeat, being wise.”
  144. H. Van der Loos, The Miracles of Jesus, 1965, E.L. Brill Press, Netherlands. See also, the Wikipedia article, Miracles of Jesus.
  145. Brooke Olson Vuckovic, Heavenly Journeys, Earthly Concerns , 2004, Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 9781135885243.
  146. Don Stewart, “Is the God of Islam Personally Knowable?” The Blue Letter Bible.
  147. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., p. 31.
  148. M. Amanullah, "Just Retribution (Qisas) Versus Forgiveness (‘Afw)", in Islam: Past, Present and Future,” International Seminar on Islamic Thoughts Proceedings, December 2004, Department of Theology and Philosophy, Faculty of Islamic Studies Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, pp. 871–883.
  149. Andrew Rippin, et al., The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an ([2a reimpr.] ed.), 2006, Blackwell, ISBN 978140511752-4: See the section. “Poetry and Language, by Navid Kermani, p.107-120.
  150. Sam Roberts, “Patricia Crone, Questioning Scholar of Islamic History, Dies at 70,” New York Times, 7/22/15.
  151. The Hadith, Sahih Muslim, 41:7023; and, in Arabic, p.193, part 2.  See also, Tamara Sonn, A Brief History of Islam, 2004, Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-2174-2, p. 204.
  152. Wikipedia article, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houri.
  153. Jane I. Smith & Yvonne Y. Haddad, Islamic Understanding, 1981, SUNT Press p. 164.
  154. Seyyed Hossein Nasr; Caner K. Dagli; Maria Massi Dakake; Joseph E.B. Lumbard; Mohammed Rustom, eds., The Study Quran: A New Translation and Commentary, 2015, HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  155. See the article on “Sufism,” Britannica.com.
  156. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., pp. 59-61.
  157. Britannica.com. See also Wikipedia.com.
  158. Julia Scott Meisami, Forward to Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition).
  159. See - https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Dynamic_meditation.
  160. Professor Malcolm Clark, Islam for Dummies, 2003, Wiley Press, p. 230.
  161. Stephen Prothero writes, “Pluralists to the core, Progressive Muslims welcome multiple voices from within Islam and from other religious traditions. “They also believe that the struggle for justice lies at the heart of the Islamic tradition. 163 Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., p.54.
  162. Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One, Ibid., pp. 54-57. See also, William Ochsenwald, The Middle East, A History 2004, McGraw Hill. p. 56. ISBN 0-07-244233-6.49.  from Wikipedia on Umayyad.)
  163. Alexander Stille, “Scholars Are Quietly Offering New Theories of the Quran,” 3-4-2002, New York Times, (and International Herald Tribune).
  164. H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law, 2014, Oxford University Press, pp. 199-205.
  165. Siraj Khan, Blasphemy Against the Prophet, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture (Editors: Coeli Fitzpatric, and Adam Hani Walker), ISBN 978-1610691772, pp. 59–67.  See also, Lutz Wiederhold, "Blasphemy Against the Prophet Muhammad and His Companions: The introduction of the topic into shafi'i legal literature and its relevance for legal practice under Mamluk rule," 1997, Journal of Semitic Studies. 42 (1): 39–70. doi:10.1093/jss/XLII.1.39.
  166. Glenn, H. Patrick, Legal Traditions of the World, 2007, Oxford University Press, pp. 218–219.
  167. "Statistics & Data:" Honour Based Violence Awareness Network.
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  169. E. Ann Black, Hossein Esmaeili and Nadirsyah Hosen, 2014, Modern Perspectives on Islamic Law, ISBN 978-0857934475, pp. 222-223.
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  242. Matthew 12:48-50.  See also Mark 3:34. See also Karen Armstrong, A History of God, Ibid., pp. 31-32.
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  250. Stephen Prothero, Ibid., p. 177.
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  254. Alan Watts, The Way of Zen.  See also, Stephen Prothero, Ibid., p 186.
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  256. Stephen Prothero, Ibid. p. 180.
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